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Munjac (Muntiacus reevesi)
Muntjac are amongst the most primitive of deer. They are very small, standing only 16 - 25 inches at the shoulder.

The males have long tusk-like upper canines and small antlers. Muntjac are solitary and live in forested hilly countryside. They feed mainly on herbs grass tender buds and branches.

The male muntjac is remarkable for it's call and when it is alarmed it will bark a warning. Because of this it is sometimes referred to as a barking deer

After a gestation period of about seven months, the doe gives birth to a spotted fawn, which weighs approx. 1 kg. Soon after the birth the doe comes into season, is mated, and may conceive within two or three days. Thus, unlike any other of our wild deer, the fawns are born at all times of the year.

Fallow (Dama dama)
Fallow Deer are the most common species found in parks and widely distributed in the wild, fallow deer are found in every county in England.

The fallow, unlike all other species of deer, has several colour varieties ranging from black, through shades of brown with white spots, to all white.



The winter coat, which is very much thicker than the summer coat, is also darker and some colour varieties have spots in the summer and lose them altogether in the winter.

Prized for their ornamental value in deer parks, male fallow have distinctive palmated antlers which are cast and regrown each year.The antlers, fully formed and clean of the velvet covering in which they grow, are an impressive sight at the time of the rut or mating season in October. The male, normally silent, at this time of the year is to be heard groaning as he defends his rutting stand.

The fawns are born eight months after the rut, in June, and at birth weigh approximately 10lb. During the first few days of life the fawn lies concealed in bracken or other suitable undergrowth, its only protection being the camouflage colouring of the coat and the absence of any scent to betray it to predators. At this time the mother returns to the fawn regularly in order to feed it.


Red (Cervus elaphus)
The red deer is Britain's largest native land mammal. Most common in the Highlands of Scotland but in England can be seen in the Lake District and on Exmoor. Smaller herds also exist in the New Forest, Thetford Chase and parts of the Midlands.

There have been laws to protect red deer since Saxon times and because of conservation, they have survived in fluctuating numbers through the Middle Ages to modern times.


During the summer, Red deer are dark red or brown with a lighter color of cream on the underbelly, inner thighs and rump. There may also be some spots on the summer coats, particularly along the spine. In winter, the pelage changes to a darker brown or grey, with lighter patches on the rump and undersides.

Calves are spotted at birth but generally lose these spots after about 2 months. When they are born, hill calves will weigh approximately 6.5kg, but the birth weight might be double this in the case of lowland forest deer. Before the rut the stag's neck visibly thickens and a mane develops.

This has probably evolved as a result of the extra muscle and protection required when fighting during the rut. Red deer are grazers by preference, however good grass is not always available so many other food sources are taken advantage of. These include rough grasses as well as heather and dwarf shrubs.  

  For more information on British Deer visit
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